Thursday, May 11, 2017

THE FIRST KABUKI-ZA (1889-1911): Chapter 16: 1902 (Meiji 36)

Chapter 16

1902 (Meiji 35)

Samuel L. Leiter

[Note: This is Chapter 16 in a series devoted to the early history of the Kabuki-za (1889-1911). It is largely based on Vols. 1 and 3 of the Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi (A Hundred Year History of the Kabuki-za), edited by Nagayama Takeomi (1995). A team of 10 writers worked on that project although none are identified in the books for specific contributions. Some material has been cut, some expanded, and other material added from different sources. Links are given selectively and usually only for items not so identified in previous entries. Prof. Kei Hibino of Seikei University offered helpful comments during the preparation of this and all previous entries. Corrections and documented additions are welcome.]

How Shōchiku was born:

January 3, 1902, article in Osaka Asahi Shinbun with first mention of the Matsutake (later Shōchiku) company name. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Matsutake’s New Year 

We have already written about the other day’s ritualistic opening ceremony (kokera otoshi), which continues, for the Meiji-za in Kyoto’s Shinkyōgoku district, whose rebuilding was completed this winter. The theatre’s producers (zanushi), Shirai Matsujirō and Ōtani Takejirō, are actually brothers. Takejirō, who succeeded to the headship of their birth family, and Matsujirō who was adopted into the Shirai family, are partners in the theatre business, with Takejirō running Kyoto’s Kabuki-za and Matsujirō Kyoto’s Itani-za and Tokiwa-za.
Ōtani Takejirō, From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Sadly, the Tokiwa-za was lost in a conflagration and its corporate ownership was dissolved. Regretting this setback, the “Matsutake” brothers quickly joined together to build a new theatre on the site of the burned-down one, and, within two months of the disaster, had it completely finished and opened for business. Matsujirō, 25 at the start of this year, only a few years after having attained adulthood, has attained swift success in the prime of his life, and looks forward to an auspicious new year. People speak earnestly of the brothers’ abilities and of the trust everyone puts in them. (From the Ōsaka Asahi Shinbun, January 3, 1902, quoted in Shōchiku Nanajū Nen.)
Shirai Matsujirō. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
The previous year, the brothers Shirai and Ōtani had built the Meiji-za on the site of Kyoto’s Shinkyōgoku’s burned-down Tokiwa-za and opened it on New Year’s Day, 1902. This was their second such effort following their having dismantled the Gion-kan and moved it in remodeled form to the site of the Sakai-za, where it opened as Kyoto’s Kabuki-za.

 However, this was the first time the public saw the new name Matsutake, combining the first character of each brother’s name. Theatres operated by Shirai were referred to as “Shirai theatres” (Shirai no shibai) and those operated by Ōtani as “Ōtani theatres” (Ōtani no shibai). The Meiji-za’s illustrated posters (e-banzuke), however, began the practice of advertising the management by writing, “Producers Shirai, Ōtani (Zanushi Shirai Ōtani). After the above newspaper article appeared, theatres operated by the brothers referred to them not with in terms of their respective names but as “Matsutake theatres.” Since it was more convenient to refer to their business with a single term rather than by thinking of the brothers Shirai and Ōtani, the Matsutake Gōshi Kaisha (Matsutake Limited Partnership Company) was formed.

Shōchiku emblem of pine and bamboo. 
 The company emblem showed entwined pine (matsu) and bamboo (take) elements, and had a lantern shop near Shinkyōgoku print the name on lanterns, after which the name Matsutake represented their company. The Matsutake Limited Partnership Company later became the Matsutake Unlimited Partnership Company (Matsutake Gōmei Kaisha). Finally, after undergoing many changes, it became today’s Shōchiku Joint Stock Corporation (Shōchiku Kabushiki Kaisha), Shōchiku being an alternate reading of Matsutake. The beginning of all this happened in Meiji 35 or 1902. (From Shōchiku Nanajū Nen.)

The year’s first production at Tokyo’s Kabuki-za was on January 9, with an 11:00 a.m. curtain. The New Year’s program always starred Onoe Kikugorō V but, at the end of 1901, as described in the previous chapter, he had suffered a serious stroke, so the show focused on Nakamura Shikan IV (later Nakamura Utaemon V), Ichikawa Yaozō VII (later Ichikawa Chūsha VII), Onoe Eizaburō V (later Onoe Baikō VI), Ichimura Kakitsu V (later Ichimura XV), and Ichikawa Somegorō IV (later Matsumoto Kōshirō V), all of them to become major stars of the 20th century.

The opening play was Kamakura Yama Haru no Asahina, the second was Honchō Nijūshikō with Eizaburō as Yaegaki-hime in the “Kitsunobi” scene, the third was a new play, Kin no Shachi Uwasa no Takanami. Honchō Nijūshikō, adapted from a puppet play, employed the services of bunraku chanter Takemoto Datedayū (later Takemoto Tosadayū VI) and shamisen player Tsuruzawa Tomomatsu (later Tsuruzuwa Dōhachi).
Nakamura Fukusuke (later Utaemon V) as Lady Matsushima in Kamakura Yama Haru no Asahina. From Kabuki Hyakunen-Shi.
Fukuchi Ōchi monopolized the writing of new plays at the Kabuki-za, while at the Meiji-za Matsui Shōō was writing such successful plays for Ichikawa Sadanji I as Aku Genta and Genzanni. These were considered the first products of nontraditional playwrights writing for kabuki. Noting this, Kabuki-za production head Inoue Takejirō began to search for new playwrights himself and found them in three contemporary critics. They were Jōnō Saigiku (who died at 72 on January 27), Okamoto Kidō, and Oka Onitarō, who wrote Kogane no Shachi Uwasa no Takanami (The Legend of Golden Dolphin and the High Waves) for this program.

Written to relate to the New Year’s season, it dramatized the legend of the bandit Kakinoki Kinsuke, who, in order to get his lord, Hagino Gennoshin, out of a financial pickle, was tempted by the villainous Okeya no Gonji to ride a weight-bearing kite to the roof of Nagoya Castle and shave off the golden scales on its golden dolphin statuette. Ichimura Kakitsu played Kinsuke, Ichikawa Yaozō was Gonji, Kataoka Ichizō was Gennoshin, Nakamura Shikan played Gennoshin’s superior, Onoe Eizaburō was Gennoshin’s wife, with Ichikawa Somegorō and Ichikawa Omezō in other roles. However, with both Danjūrō and Kikugorō out ill, the production felt flat and drew few spectators and closed on February 2, after 25 performances.

Still, it was the start of the Kabuki-za’s practice of hiring freelance playwrights from the literary world outside the traditional system of resident dramatists. The traditional playwrights made their displeasure known. According to Kidō’s Meiji no Engeki (Meiji Theatre), a playwright received 50 yen for a new play.

On January 12, the Jiji Shinpō newspaper began to publish a series of topical cartoons. On January 25 occurred a famous disaster when the Fifth Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Army’s Eighth Division lost nearly 200 men who froze to death as they marched through the snow in freezing temperatures on the Hakkōda Mountains. Also around this time, the Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed in Russia, and on January 30, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance (Nichi-Ei Dōmei: 1902-23) was signed in London.  

In February a movement to petition for the closing of the Ashio Copper Mines began, with a great number of mine pollution victims going to Kyoto to make their appeal. This was around the time that the First Higher School’s dormitory song (ryōka) “Aa Gyokuhai Hana ni Ukete” (Ah! To Receive Flower Petals in a Crystal Drinking Cup), music by Kusunoki Masakazu, lyrics by Yano Kanji, was created.

In March hopes rose that, after a long layoff, Danjūrō and Kikugorō would once more join together at the Kabuki-za, with the theatre management preparing for it refinishing the stage floor, abolishing the “snake-eye” (janome) revolving stage in which one disc is set within another so they can move in opposite directions, and digging a basement (naraku i.e. “hell”) beneath the stage. However, only Danjūrō was well enough to return, the plays chosen were poor, and the opening was eventually delayed until March 27.
Danjūrō as Katō Kiyomasa. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
The show opened at 11:00 a.m., with Danjūrō as Katō Kiyomasa in Zōhō Momoyama Monogatari, known as Jishin Katō. Next on the program were two dances, Hanabusa Jishi (Calyx Lion) and Fukitori Tsuma (The Would-Be Flute Player Takes a Wife). Then came the domestic drama Katsuragawa Renri no Shigarami (Lovers Entwined at the Katsura River), the “Obiya” scene, with Danjūrō, Shikan, and Yaozō. The conclusion was the tokiwazu dance Obi no Aya Katsura no Kawamizu (The Obi Pattern and the Waters of the Katsura River), featuring the musician Rinchū.

Danjūrō’s Jishin Katō lacked its usual spirit, and his Hansei in “Obiya” was not a role he particularly liked. Thus, from day four Jishin Katō, was replaced by Nani Ōshima Homare no Tsuyo Yumi, with Danjūrō as Tametomo; he also gave over his role in “Obiya” to Onoe Kanijūrō II. The plays were tedious but proved popular enough and the production was appropriately lively. It closed on April 20, after 25 showings.
Danjūrō as Tametomo. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Danjūrō’s infirmity was showing and audiences could feel that his days on stage were numbered. In his review Miki Takeji noted sharply:

The recent Kabuki-za plays were middling and, as usual, admission prices were high but nonetheless there was an unexpected turnout. While you could call it a fluke no one can deny that it was because of the current polite society’s respect for him. Of course, this “respect” may sound pleasing to the ear, but if you put it another way, it was only because he hasn’t been given up on yet. So from now on, I would like Danjūrō to behave resolutely and not be disparaged as a worn-out old horse. (From Miki Takeji, “Kabuki-za Gōhyō,” in Kabuki, no. 24.)

Opening day coincided with the bizarre “Butt Flesh Incident” (denniku kiritori jiken) a.k.a. the Noguchi Osaburō Incident, which captured Tokyo’s attention. A man named Noguchi Osaburō was accused of killing a boy, gouging out his eyes, and slicing off his buttock flesh, but the lack of evidence exonerated him from this killing and two others of a similar nature. He was, however, found guilty of another murder and sentenced to be executed.

In March shinpa actors Ii Yōhō, Kawai Takeo, Ōtani Bajū and others presented Shinjū Ten no Amijima (The Love Suicides at Ten no Amijima), the first in a series of eight carefully researched Chikamatsu Monzaemon revivals  at the Masago-za. As Komiya Toyotaka notes:

“Ii had long been fond of period pieces, but his Chikamatsu series was something quite new in the theatre, Kabuki as well as Shimpa. The minutely detailed joint-critique (gappyō) which Kabuki, most respected of the theatre periodicals, gave the June performance . . . suggests how important it was considered.” (From Komiya Toyotaka, Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era, vol. III, “Music and Drama.”)

These performances “attempted to cleave as close to the original text as possible while still following basic kabuki conventions,” writes Ayako Kano in Acting like a Woman: Theater, Gender, and Nationalism. Other productions included Horikawa Nami no Tsuzumi (The Drum of the Waves of Horikawa) and Daikyōji Mukashi Gonomi (The Almanac Maker and the Old Almanac). March also saw the renaming of the Haruki-za as the Hongō-za, the taking of the name Nakamura Kashō I (later Tokizō II) by Nakamura Tanetarō, and name changing of fight scene choreographer (tateshi) from Ichikawa Masuroku to Ichikawa Danpei.

In April, Tamura Nariyoshi, managing Tokyo’s then popular boy’s kabuki troupe, took over the Kabuki-za for seven days to raise money for a nursery school. They opened at 9:00 a.m. on April 12, and their six-play repertoire included three scenes from Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami, “Kamo Tsutsumi” (Kamo Riverbank), “Kuruma Biki” (Pulling the Carriage Apart), and “Terakoya” (The Village School); Wada Gassen Onna Maiginu; Hanami Doki Kuruwa no Saya-ate; and Ōsakazuki Shūsen no Tsuwamono; Ashiya Dōman Ōuchi Kagami; and Momijigari.

Among the young actors, all to become popular stars, were Nakamura Kichiemon I and Ichikawa Danko (later Ennosuke II and En’o), Bando Yasosuke (later Bandō Mitsugorō VII), Morita Mitahachi (later Morita Kanya XIII), Onoe Kōnosuke (later Onoe Monzaburō IV), Nakamura Matagorō, Sawamura Sōnosuke, Sawamura Tosshō (later Sawamura Sōjūrō VII), Ichikawa Somegorō (later Matsumoto Kōshirō VII), and Ichimura Kakitsu (later Ichimura Uzaemon XV). Kabuki-za manager Inoue was so impressed by the 17-year-old Kichiemon’s Matsuomaru in Sugawara that he began using him frequently at the Kabuki-za thereafter.

On April 4 Kansai actor Nakamura Kōro died, aged 59. On April 11, Hanabusa Ryūgai, calling his work “Western-style theatre” (yōshiki engeki), produced his adaptation of Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People (Shakai no Teki) at the Kinkikan movie theatre in Kanda. In Acting like a Woman Ayako Kano quotes Matsumoto Shinko’s Meiji Engeki Ron Shi, which says that Hanabusa attempted to “fundamentally depart from musical theater (gakugeki), eliminate the narrator (chobo), abolish dance-like gestures, and perform in the manner of Straight Theater (seigeki-teki).”

In May Nakamura Harusame’s Nihon no Katei (The Japanese Family), originally called Ichijiku (The Fig), was done at the Masago-za starring Ii Yōhō and Kawai Takeo, with the latter gaining such acclaim for his role as Emiya that he thereafter became a specialist at playing foreign women. The same month Shima Bunjirō (?), Takayasu Gekkō, Shirai Matsujirō, and others formed an Osaka Theatre Reform Society, and the Fukui Mohei troupe presented Molière’s Tartuffe, translated by Takayasu Gekkō, at Kyoto’s Itani-za. And actor Yoshimura Isaburō died in Tokyo at 80.
Kikugorō, said to have been beyond recovery, began to make strides toward convalescence. Although his left hand and arm remained useless he wanted to get back on stage as soon as possible and planned to rejoin Danjūrō at the Kabuki-za for the May program, which opened at 11:00 a.m. on the 17th. At first, Danjūrō was to give a “once-in-a-lifetime” (issei ichidai) performance of the female lead in Kasuga no Tsubone, and he got through the rehearsals without incident, but then his nephritis flared up and he had to bow out just before opening day.

As a result, the 10,000 yen spent on the play’s expensive new costumes and props, were lost, which the management is said to have complained about in the interests of garnering publicity. The first play was quickly changed to Fukuchi’s 1892 adaptation of Chikamatsu’s Motomezuka Migawari Nitta, starring Yaozō. Then came a new dance play by Fukuchi, Kumo no Furumai (The Spider’s Behavior), starring Eizaburō. A drop curtain contributed by the Chūō Newspaper Company was revealed, after which Kikugorō appeared in Aoi no Ue Tegara no Kumadori, with the final piece being the tokiwazu dance play Yamanba, in which Eizaburō, Kakitsu, and Somegorō alternated daily in the role of Kaidōmaru.
Kikugorō V as Yamanaka Heikurō. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Kikugorō, with half his body paralyzed, essayed the roles of Raikō in Kumo no Furumai and Yamanaka Heikurō in Aoi no Ue, but Danjūrō’s absence and the last-minute program arrangements led to empty seats and a run cut short to only 20 days.

It was reported that Kabuki-za resident playwright Fukuchi Ōchi proposed that, from this production forward, the playwrights wear old-fashioned hakama so as to preserve thei4 dignity as literary men. (From the Miyako Shinbun, May 9, 1902.)

Also, the theatre ordered that from this show on the auditorium security men (tomeba) and ushers (dekata) all wear white, vertically striped uniforms, that the young employees in the teahouses wear white momohiki (work pants) with narrow stripes, and that the operators of the stage traps wear navy blue outfits with tight sleeves.

Afterward, the Kabuki-za hosted a variety of non-kabuki performances given brief runs, such as a German acrobatic troupe (June 7-12), an old-style martial arts tournament (June 13-15), motion pictures and a reformed style of naniwabushi narrative singing (June 18-23). Then there was a so-called “Masters’ Group” (Meijinkai), created by Tamura Nariyoshi, of song and dance in a “Great Kabuki Families’ Competition” (Gigei Kurabu), presented in evening performances and featuring such eminent musicians as Takemoto Datedayū, Tokiwazu Rinchū, Kiyomoto Enjudayū V, Yoshimura Ijūrō VI, Kineya Rokuzaemon VIII, and choreographer Fujima Kan’emon, with young actors such as Kakitsu, Somegorō, Eizaburō, Ushinosuke, and Eizō dancing in the uncostumed, basic kimono and hakama-style called suodori. It was a sellout.

In June Nakamura Omocha (later Ōtani Tomoemon VI) became Nakamura Komasuke at the Ichimura-za. On June 6, 1902, the Tokyo Stock Market crashed and trading was suspended.

July’s summer program (bon kyōgen), lacking Dan-Kiku, was led by Shikan with six plays given in the evening, starting at five. The theatre management made the following business-related innovations for the program.

1) A box rental fee is eliminated in favor of a ticket system ranging from first class to sixth class. No charge will be incurred for tea, brazier, pillows, and footwear-keeping, except for the one listed on the tickets. The management is to give the theatre staff 10-sen for each customer who rents these small items. 2) Third floor (seventh class) customers can rent pillows and braziers for five-sen apiece. If the customers do not want these, do not force them to rent. If they do not pay, do not rent. 3) If the teahouse or other theatre staff serve refreshments without permission, or receive any amount of money for their service except ticket fees, the business office should be notified, and it should punish the people in charge immediately. 4) One-act-only upper-class seats are ready for the convenience of affluent customers. They can have a seat in the East, West, South, and North parts of the box seats and see one act and a little more.  5) Everyone should be present for all the plays on opening day.  6) The custom of half-price for opening day is abolished and full price will be paid. 7) Performances will begin at 5:00 p.m. and the drum announcing the end of the performance will be at 10:00 p.m. (From Kimura Kinka, Kinsei Gekidan Shi: Kabuki-za Hen.)
These reforms were widely welcomed.

The production opened on at 5:00 p.m. on July 15, beginning with the pantomime called Kuramayama Danmari, moving on to Genpei Nunobiki Taki, the scene at “Kurōsuke’s Home.” It was followed by Banshū Sarayashiki, the “Tetsuzan Mansion” scene. Then came “Terakoya” from Sugawara Denju Tenarai Kagami. Unagidani followed, with the final piece being the popular dance drama Modori Kago Iro ni Aikata (The Returning Palanquin). Yaozō took ill during the run and his roles had to be taken over by Kakitsu, Matsusuke, and Somegorō.

Tamura, having spoken with Inoue Takejirō, advised that without the presence of stars on the level of Danjūrō and Kikugorō, the production information printed on the old-style program-posters (banzuke) would look insignificant so the banzuke were abandoned and a program printed from movable type was produced. Since the cost for a first-class gallery seat, with tea and smoking utensils included, was an inexpensive 1 yen, 20 sen, attendance flourished and the production ran for 15 days.

And even without leaders, the actors of the time—a lineup now famous as Utaemon, Uzaemon, Kōshirō, Yaozō, Matsusuke, the late Kataoka Ichizō, Kichiemon, Kikugorō VI—made this into what would have been a major production even had there been a banzuke. (Tamura Nariyoshi, “Ima Mukashi Kabuki-za Monogatari no go—gose Kikugorō no yuki made” in Shin Engei, July 1916.)

In July scholar Ikenouchi Nobuyoshi moved to Tokyo from Matsuyama, where he founded the magazine Nōgaku, and built a theatre. And in August, playwright Izumi Kyōka’s Tsūya Monogatari (The Vigil’s Tale) was staged at the Tokiwa-za.

From July through August thousands of workers went on strike at the Kure Naval Arsenal and the Koishikawa Arsenal. On August 15 there was a gunpowder explosion at an ammunition factory at the Osaka Military Arsenal on Bentenjima, with over 100 casualties. Unrest clearly was in the air.  On September 19 Masaoka Shiki, who revolutionized haiku and tanka poetry, advocated realistic descriptions of nature, and sought to modernize traditional literature, died from TB at only 36.

The Kabuki-za, which had no kabuki in August and September, opened on August 23 for W.A. Davis’s British magic show, which ran six days. From September 23-25 the theatre hosted a fundraising concert of shamisen music.

An controversial problem arose in the world of nagauta music when, following the founding on August 19 of the Society for Reforming the Nagauta (Nagauta Kenseikai), “announcement was made that the sixth Kineya Saburōsuke, father of Rokushirō, would succeed to his teacher’s name as the fifth Kineya Kangorō. At this news, the rival Rokuzaemon faction of the Kineya house hastily announced that one of its sons was becoming Kangorō. There were therefore shortly two musicians with the professional name Kangorō.” (From Komiya, Music and Drama in the Meiji Era.)

In September Takayasu Gekkō’s translation of Shakespeare’s King Lear, which he titled Yami to Hikari (Darkness and Light), was produced at Kyoto’s Minami-za by Fukui Mohei’s company. That same month Kawakami Otojirō’s company returned from its triumphant European tour.
Ichimura Kakitsu and Onoe Kikugorō in Ninjō Banashi Bunshichi Motoyui. Woodblock print by Utagawa Hōsai (Utagawa Kunimasa IV). From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
In October those who despaired of ever seeing Dan-Kiku together again were heartened to learn that Danjūrō had recovered sufficiently to consider reappearing on stage after a year’s absence. The joint Dan-Kiku troupe, including Shikan, opened at 11:00 a.m. on October 11, beginning with Nachi no Taki Chikai no Mongaku, a.k.a. Mongaku Kanjinchō, an 1889 katsureki geki by Kawajiri Hōgin, with Danjūrō as Moritō, Kikugorō as Watanabe Wataru , and Shikan as Kesa Gozen. Second was Hirakana no Seisuiki’s “Sakaro” (“Rowing Backwards”) scene after which came a new play dramatized for Kikugorō by Enokido Kenji from Enchō’s rakugo story, Ninjō Banashi Bunshichi Motoyui; it remains popular even today. Kikugorō originated the role of Sakan Chōbei in it. The closer was a dance play, Odoke Niwaka Ataka no Shinseki (Farcical Fun at Ataka’s New Barrier). The program ran for 25 days through November 4.
Kikugorō V as Watanabe Wataru. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Businesses were suffering, heavy rains were falling, and personal finances were strained, so prices like eight yen, 70 sen for a gallery seat were too high even for a production starring Dan-Kiku but an 80% attendance would usually have been enough to constitute a hit. However, as Kawajiri Seitan disappointedly observed, the aged and infirm Dan-Kiku were lusterless, showing nothing of their characters’ youthful valor during their fight scene in the first play when their characters fall into a basin at the foot of a waterfall. And when the curtain closed they had to have their menservants help them to their nearby dressing rooms, showing how really helpless they were. (In Akiba Tarō, Tōtō Meiji Engeki Shi.)
Street poster for October 1902 program at the Kabuki-za. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
In October Ichikawa Metora’s five-year-old adopted son debuted as Ichikawa Otora IV (later Ichikawa Sadanji III) at the Kabuki-za. On October 27 playwright Katsu Genzō III died at 59. The principal disciple of Kawatake Mokuami, he was active chiefly in the Kansai area and wrote around 300 plays.

November 13 was opening day for the next production, which began at 11:00 p.m., when Dan-Kiku made the final joint appearance of their lives. The five-piece program started with Satomi Hakkenden, followed by the scene at Kinai’s home in Chūshin Kanagaki Kōshaku (A Syllabary Lecture on the Faithful), after which came Takatoki, from Danjūrō’s Shin Kabuki Jūhachiban collection. Fourth was the popular domestic drama best known as Benten Kozō and here given the formal title of Enoshima Sodachi Neoi no Chigo Giku (A Chrysanthemum Boy Born and Raised on Enoshima), while the final work was Setsugetsuka Mitsugumi Sakazuki (Three Cups of Snow, Moon, and Flowers). Danjūrō’s Takatoki and Kikugorō’s Benten could truly be called “once-in-a-lifetime” (equivalent to “farewell”) performances.

This November saw the publication of Kunikida Doppo’s Shūchū Nikki (A Drunkard’s Diary) in the magazine Bungeikai (Literary World). At this time, the young Shiga Naoya, who would become one of Japan’s greatest writers, was under the great influence of Uchimura Kanzō, who raised his spiritual awareness over a period of seven years, and who introduced him to reading the Bible and to Christianity. Novelist Agawa Hiroyuki, wrote the following in his serialized biography, Shiga Naoya, for Iwanami Shoten’s magazine, Zusho:

Naoya, however, was not the type of Christian middle school student who closes himself up in his study and does nothing but read books, principally the Bible. From then through his higher education days, the two things that raised his temperature more than reading were kabuki and female gidayū performers. He first began to go to the theatre alone toward the end of his high school days, when the performance he saw is said to have been Kikugorō V making his last appearance in Benten Kozō. . . . He liked it well enough to see it not once, but two or three times.

But, whether it was the Kabuki-za or the Meiji-za, performances at the time began at 10 a.m., regardless of how great his passion was, he couldn’t go any other day than Sunday. Moreover, making it even more difficult was the fact that on Sunday mornings he had to be at Prof. Uchimura’s home in Tsunohazu. In order to create the most compatible coexistence of his interest in Bible lectures and kabuki, Naoya used his family’s jinrikisha. . . . He rode in this conveyance from his home in Mikawadai to Tsunohazu, had it wait for him near the gate, and, as soon as the professor’s lecture ended, rushed to Kobiki-chō. When Kanzō noticed and asked, “Whose rickshaw is that?,” Naoya, as can be imagined, appears to have been dumbfounded. “Mine,” he said, which led to his arriving a bit late at the theatre, where he spent the rest of the day.

He didn’t pay the rickshaw fee himself, nor knew how much it would cost to hire an inn-affiliated rickshaw for half a day. His stepmother, who kept it a secret from his father, Shiga Naoharu, is said to have paid the fee on the sly. His seat at the Kabuki-za was arranged for him beforehand in the middle of the hiradoma section by an usher named Ginjirō, and he sat there through the fourth piece on the program. (From Agawa Hiroyuki, Shiga Naoya, in Zusho, December 1987.)

The master himself wrote:

This was Godaime’s (Kikugorō’s) final stage appearance, for which he played Benten Kozō. As far as I remember it, I went with Hayashi from the second time on, and when I saw it for the third time, I was able to remember not only his dialogue but the way Benten Kozō’s handled his pipe. The first piece on the program was Hakkenden, with Danjūrō as Inuyama Dōsetsu, the next was Takatoki, with Danjūrō’s disciples (deshi) as the tengu goblins, who obviously cared about their master instead of engaging in acting. However, when Takatoki first leaned against a pillar and said something, he was really excellent.

 In another piece, the seventh act of Taiheiki Chūshin Kōshaku, Danjūrō played Jūtarō and Godaime was his father Kinai but his body resisted and, when he had to descend from the upstage platform to the stage proper, he used a low screen to help him slide down the steps. (From Shiga Naoya, “Kabuki Hōdan,” in Shiga Naoya Zenshū, Vol. 7.)

As expected, Danjūrō couldn’t defeat his age. Perhaps it was a failure of memory, but as Inuyama Dōsetsu he is said to have babbled his dialogue incoherently. Because of his disability, Kikugorō had to make various changes in the staging, including the way his hanamichi entrance and exit were handled. Instead of acting the scene in the Hamamatsuya dry goods shop, it was performed in the shop’s warehouse.

As the actors began their exit, the stage slowly started to revolve beneath them until the side of the Hamamatsuya was seen at stage left, with a board fence running across the stage. “The stage was supposed to be taking place at evening-time with a girl seen returning from the baths, a husband and wife strolling by, etc. The same basic business as in a traditional performance was enacted but it took place on the main stage as the actors slowly made their way off at the right.” (From Samuel L. Leiter, The Art of Kabuki: Five Famous Plays.)

They engaged in the scene’s customary game of “The Priest Carries the Bag” (Bōzumochi), in which Benten and his buddy, Nango Rikimaru, played by Ichimura Kakitsu, choose who gets to carry their bundle, but instead of Benten getting stuck with the load, Nango ended up with it.

Kikugorō’s Benten Kozō in the program’s domestic drama was very interesting. Kakitsu, who later became Uzaemon XV, played Nango Rikimaru, but at the time a scandal in which Kakitsu had been involved was in the newspapers, and Kikugorō used the pretext of their being in a play to scold him in his [partly improvised] dialogue, which made Kakitsu turn red and behave apologetically. With his uncle, Godaime, thus admonishing him onstage, the newspapers couldn’t very well keep criticizing Kakitsu, which felt good. The scandal had to do with an incident at an inn at Ōmiya Park so Kikugorō’s reprimand began when he said, “Otowaya [the yagō or “house name” of the Kikugorō line]—,” continuing with “Ōmiya—,” laughter erupted here and there among the audience. (From Shiga Naoya, “Yume ka,” in Dan-Kiku Sai Rokugatsu Ōkabuki: Kabuki-za Sujigaki.)

Benten was the last role ever acted by Kikugorō. On December 5, two days before the scheduled closing, the star had a relapse and he was forced to stop performing, thereby ending the run, which had only mediocre attendance, at 23 days.

On November 28, kyōgen actor Yamamoto Azuma (Yamamoto Tōjirō I), of the Ōkura school, passed away at 67.

From December 10, Tamura Nariyoshi presented a performance by Shinbashi geisha called “Kabu Engei Kai” (Song and Dance Entertainment Group,” which occupied the Kabuki-za for seven days. This month, on the 16th, the Encyclopedia Britannica (Daiei Hyakka Zensho) went on sale (in monthly installments) at the Nihonbashi Maruzen Book Store. On the 24th, writer Takayama Chogyū, only 32, died. On the same day, there was an outbreak of plague in Tokyo.

In 1902 the hisashigami hairstyle was popular among upper-class women and female students. In sports, ping pong became popular in Japan. The Shiseidō Pharmacy in the Ginza added Japan’s first soda fountains in 1902, selling soda water and ice cream; this was the origin of today’s Shiseidō Parlor, one of the Ginza’s famous attractions.

For world events of 1902, including births and deaths, click here. For a limited number of important new plays, click here. And for international theatres of 1902, click here. In addition, this was the year that Gorki’s The Lower Depths opened at the Moscow Art Theatre, and when Shaw’s Mr’s Warren’s Profession premiered in London. France’s George Méliès made his classic film A Trip to the Moon in 1902, American Owen Wister published his Western novel, The Virginian, Joseph Conrad publishes Youth and The Heart of Darkness, Rudyard Kipling publishes Just So Stories, Henry James publishes The Wings of the Dove, France’s André Gide publishes The Immoralist, and photographer Edward Steichen’s Rodin with His Sculptures and The Thinker represent the photo-secessionist movement. 

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

THE FIRST KABUKI-ZA (1889-1911): Chapter 15: 1901 (Meiji 34)

Chapter 15

1901 (Meiji 34)

Samuel L. Leiter

[Note: This is Chapter 15 in a series devoted to the early history of the Kabuki-za (1889-1911). It is largely based on Vols. 1 and 3 of the Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi (A Hundred Year History of the Kabuki-za), edited by Nagayama Takeomi (1995). A team of 10 writers worked on the project although none are identified in the Japanese original for specific contributions. Some material has been cut, some expanded, and other material added from different sources. Links are given selectively. Prof. Kei Hibino of Seikei University offered helpful comments during the preparation of this and all previous entries. Corrections and documented additions are welcome.]

When National Treasure nō master Kondō Kenzō (1890-1988)—a shite actor of the Hōshō school—was 97, he recalled his youth at the turn of the 20th century.

I used to visit my older sister who worked on the Ginza at Takiyama-chō, accompanied by my brother-in-law, with whom I often went sightseeing along the Ginza. Around where Shiseidō is now was an ices shop called the Hakodateya. The ice cream we had at a table in front of this fashionable shops on the brick-paved Ginza was really delicious

My sister took me to see theatre at the Ichimura-za and the Hongō-za, but mainly I went to see kabuki with my older brother at the Asakusa-za and the Ryūsei-za (in Asakusa), among others. But what really comes to mind is when, in 1901, at the age of 11, I became an apprentice under Master Hōsei Kurō in Fukugawa. The master took me for my first visit to the Kabuki-za, in Kobiki-chō. The lineup of remarkable actors included Danjūrō and Kikugorō, as well as Yaozō and Matsusuke, so it was only natural for my theatre temperature to rise. (From Kondō Kenzō, “Koshikata,” in Ginza Tengoku Hyakunen Kinen, GINZA Hyaku-chōme kara.)
The Ginza near the turn of the 20th century.
As the new century slipped into its first year, the expression “20th century” this and “20th century” that was everywhere, used constantly in writing and verbally, with businessmen shrewdly selling things by labeling them “20th century.”

In January, writer Takayama Chogyū was notably active in the worlds of literature and criticism when he became involved in an ongoing literary argument with Tsubouchi Shōyō and others.

In the theatre world, the late Kawatake Mokuami’s foremost disciple, Kawatake Shinshichi III (a.k.a. Takeshiba Kinsaku), 60, passed away on January 10. He had been welcomed to the Kabuki-za as head playwright (tate sakusha) in 1890 and, after his master, Mokuami, died in 1893, he was acknowledged as the foremost dramatist in the field, writing mainly for Ichikawa Sadanji I and Onoe Kikugorō V, being especially adept at dramatizing the kinds of human interest stories known as ninjō banashi and kōdan told by professional storytellers. His representative works include Kagotsurube (The Sword Kagotsurube), Shiobara Tasuke, Botan Dōrō, Omatsuri Sashichi, and Kiyomasa Seichūroku (Record of Kiyomasa’s Loyalty).

Kawakami Otojirō and Sadayakko Make a Brief Return

On New Year’s Day, the Kawakami Otojirō troupe arrived in Kobe, after its epochal nearly two-year journey across America and Europe, and shortly before yet another foreign tour. Kawakami had had a remarkably colorful career; he had begun by giving speeches on behalf of the democracy movement in Japan, touring the country with his “Oppekepe-bushi” song, becoming involved in the sōshi shibai (political theatre) movement, traveling to France, succeeding with his three-play series, Igai (Strange), Mata Igai (Strange Again), and Mata Mata Igai (Strange Again and Again), and again with his war dramas during the first Sino-Japanese War. He also had formed his Kawakami-za company, and run for office in the Diet. Then, seeking further achievements, he and his wife, the former geisha known as Sadayakko, who became an actress, had toured the West with their company from April 1899.

They were now back in Japan for a brief stay, gathering a large company of 90, including rising shinpa stars Fujisawa Asajirō, Fukui Mohei, Shizuma Kojirō, Takada Minoru, Yamada Kusuo, Akizuki Keitarō, Kōri Keichirō, Kimura Shūhei, to open on January 30 at Osaka’s Asahi-za in a program called “Shin Engeki Daigōdō” (Grand Union of New Theatre). The company changed its name from the Kawakami-za to the Kairyō-za.

The program included two plays, Yōkōchū no Higeki (Tragedy While Touring Abroad), about the hardships the Kawakamis endured during their tour, and Eikoku Kakumei-shi (History of the English Revolution.” They played for five days and then toured to Kobe, Tokyo, Yokohama, and Kyoto before leaving Japan again, in April, for another Western tour. In 1903, Kawakami would coin the word seigeki (genuine or authentic theatre) to refer to his production of Western adaptations, beginning with Osero (Othello), after which there would be many others. The plays presented in 1901 by Kawakami—deemed the most distinguished progenitor of shinpa during its formative years—were given in Western style, with elaborate sets and lighting, and were the forerunners of the Western drama that would soon become prominent in Japan under the name shingeki (new drama).

(Based on an account in Kabuki no 20 Seki: 100 Nen no Kiroku, published by Engekikai.)

January also saw Shirai Matsujirō beginning to produce plays at the Itani-za, in Shinkyōgoku, Kyoto. The influential Kobiki-chō boss, Ishisada (Takahashi Bunkichi), died this month, as did England’s Queen Victoria. And, on January 31, Yokohama’s Kumoi-za burned down.

The first program of the new century at the Kabuki-za opened at 11:00 a.m., January 13, after Kikugorō recovered from what was rumored to be a serious illness. Opening the program was Zōho Tamamono Mae (Princess Tamamono, Supplementary Version), an expansion of an earlier play. Onoe Kikugorō V played the title role, who is actually a magical fox. It was followed by Mokuami’s Nezumi Komon Harugi no Hinagata [or Shingata] (The Mouse and the Fine-Patterned New Spring Fashions), better known as Nezumi Kozō, with the concluding piece being the colorful dance, Noriaibune Ehō Manzai (Comic Performance on the Ferry Boat) featuring the great tokiwazu singer Rinchū. The show ran 25 days, closing on February 6.

Nezumi Kozō was sure to draw fans with Kikugorō in the lead but as soon as its curtain opened its plot began to raise censorship red flags. The plot was altered and its dialogue cut but it was so eviscerated it became a dull shadow of the original. The closing dance play was praised for Rinchū’s singing and the performances of rising young stars Bandō Kakitsu (later, Ichimura Uzaemon XV) as Manzai and Ichikawa Somegorō (later, Matsumoto Kōshirō VII) as Senzai, but the newspaper critics faulted the other two plays as absurd for the times and not worth seeing. 
There was no kabuki program at the Kabuki-za in February, but since it was vacant, a touring troupe of Australian actors led by the English-born Charles H. Taylor (1851-1919), unable to find another empty venue, rented it for a week, beginning on February 20, offering a daily matinee and evening performance. This was the beginning of Japanese theatres producing plays by independent Western theatre companies. The repertory included Charley’s Aunt and Rip Van Winkle, among the most popular Western plays of the time. There was also an unknown, one-act comedy. The large company included both actors and actresses, and came with its own props, sets, and costumes, brought from Australia. Its use of a cutout moon, a flowing river, and modern lighting effects, now common, were considered highly unusual and garnered considerable applause. However, the shows nonetheless failed at the box office.

The Australian Variety Theatre website describes him thusly:


(1851-1919) English-born actor, writer, manager, director/producer. 

Best known for his long association with actress Ella Carrington, Charles H. Taylor likely came to Australia in 1872 and over the next five decades carved out a reputation as one of Australia pre-eminent actor/managers. During his career he appeared in many locally-written productions (including pantomimes and burlesques), toured the Taylor-Carrington dramatic company for many years throughout Australasia and the Orient, and wrote a number of dramas and musical entertainments. Taylor continued acting (often alongside Carrington) up until his death, and was also worked as business manager/stage manager for Fullers’ Theatres during the mid-1910s.

.  .  .

Taylor has been reported as being Australian, but his death notices indicate he that he was born in London. In 1880 Taylor and Carrington were arrested and charged with the murder of an infant. The charges were dropped when it was proven that Carrington had suffered a miscarriage.

On February 3, the great statesman and educator Fukuzawa Yukichi, founder of Keiō University, died at 60. Other deaths were those of the bunraku shamisen master, Tsuruzawa Bunzō IV, at 62, and the theatre artist Torii Kiyosada, at 58. Also in February, Okumura Ioko (1845-1907) gained the support of powerful politician Konoe Atsumaro (1863-1904) in getting the cooperation of the military to found the important women’s organization, the Aikoku Fujinkai (Patriotic Ladies’ Association), which began in March; it was created to provide moral and financial aid to the grieving families of Japanese soldiers killed or wounded in China. A member of the imperial family became president. Later, after the Russo-Japanese War, its membership rapidly leaped to 270,000.

In Yokohama, the Hagoromo-za opened on February 9. The Haruki-za was forced to auction its assets on February 15, and to hold another auction in March. Kabuki actor Nakamura Tomijūrō III died on February 21, at 43.

The theatre tax was revised at this time, with both theatre personnel and journalists protesting the imposition of heavy taxes when theatres could barely meet their expenses. 

Theatre criticism was popularized around this time, becoming omnipresent with each newspaper hiring its own critic and daily criticism being published. Thus the kind of criticism published in black-covered volumes during the preceding period by the Roku Ni Ren (Six Two Group) vanished. The major critics of the day were Takenoya Shujin (Aeba Kōson), Kōdō Tokuchi, Uda Torahiko, and Nakarai Tōsui at the Asahi Shinbun; Jōnō Saigiku at the Yamato Shinbun; Sugi Gannami at the Mainichi Shinbun; Matsui Shōō at the Yorozu Chōhō; Terayama Seien at the Jiji Shinpō; Seki Baiichi and Nabeta Hison at the Nichi Nichi Shinbun; Okamoto Kidō at the Kyōka Shinbun; Yamagishi Kayō at the Yomiuri Shinbun; Yamamoto Noriyuki at the Kokumin Shinbun; Hayata Shunchō at the Hōchi Shinbun; Nagamochi Tokuichi and Yamaguchi Momotarō at the Fuji Shinbun; Oka Onitarō at the Chiyoda Shinbun; Ihara Seiseien at the Miyako Shinbun; Okano Shisui at the Ni Roku Shinbun, and others, a rather impressive lineup.

March saw the publication of Kunikida Doppo’s short story collection Musashino, which extolled a new discovery of nature’s beauty based on his enlightenment after reading William Wordsworth. Another important publication appearing in March was the new theatre magazine, Engei Sekai (Entertainment World). Also this month, the managers of the minor theatres called the Masago-za and the Misaki-za announced plans for acting schools. And, on March 2, Osaka’s Yachiyo-za burned down.

The next Kabuki-za program opened at 11:00 a.m. on March 20, starting with Ōchi’s revision of Mokuami’s 1889 Zokusetsu Bidan Kōmonki, discussed in Chapter One of this series. The second play was Daitoku-ji Shūkō (Burning Incense at Daitoku-ji Temple). The final piece was a tokiwazu dance piece, Enmusubi Yahagi no Tawamure (Marriage and the Arrow Maker’s Game). Ōchi’s play was a ceremonial opening work and was so verbose that one of its acts was cut and replaced by another but Ōchi’s adaptation showed his usual chronic problems and was said to be difficult to understand. The tsunogaki or advertising slogan for the second play, Daitoku-ji, went: “Face-Off between Two Great Rivals at the Buddhist Services for the Decisive Battle.”

Years later, the program was remembered in this conversation between Fujiura Tomitarō, headmaster (iemoto) of the San’yūtei school of rakugo storytellers, and two theatre specialists:

Suzuki: What about theatre at the Kabuki-za during the Meiji period still burns in your memory?
Fujiura: The production of Daitoku-ji Shūkō on Japan’s greatest stage, with Danjūrō’s Hideyoshi, and Godaime’s [Kikugorō] Shibata Katsuie. This was a big history play hit for Otowaya [Kikugorō]. Takigawa Kazumasu was played by Kataichi [Kataoka Ichizō]. Yaozō (later Chūsha) played Sasa Narimasa.
Toita: You mean the father of the Kataichi we know now?
Fujiura: Yes. He was a Meiji star. The two sons of Oda Nobunaga were surely played by Kōshirō VII and Akasaka (Onoe Baikō VI). After that, I’d say Danjūrō in Jishin Gatō (Gatō and the Earthquake).
(From Fujiura Tomitarō, Toita Yasuji, and Suzuki Osahiko (moderator), “Zadankai: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa Sandai o Kataru” in Kabuki-za Kaijō Kyūjū Nen Kinen Tokushūgo.)

Danjūrō wasn’t recovering quickly from his illness; he performed without incident for ten days but on the 11th he was stricken by a fever and grew very weak. He managed in the role of Mitsukuni but as Hideyoshi he soon was struggling, looking downward. The doctor said he had a kidney inflammation, which wasn’t that bad, but his lung disease was gradually worsening. Still, he carried on. Meanwhile, Kikugorō, recovering from his own ailments, was found to have albumin in his urine, which was worrisome. The health of Dan-Kiku kept their fans swinging wildly from joy to sorrow.

However, the production was a success and lasted a full 25 days, closing on April 13, with a total attendance of 35,198, to which can be added 10,670 who came to see only a single act in the section reserved for such casual visits. The proceeds for the month came to 28,000 yen.

A shareholders’ meeting was held on April 27 at which it was announced that for the first time in a four-year period dividends could be paid and, as long as there were no big losses during the next period, the payoff should be more than ten percent.

On April 6, Kawakami Otojirō and his troupe left for another foreign tour. That month Kyoto’s Shimabara-za opened. Also, at Osaka’s Kado-za, Kataoka Tsuchinosuke II took the name Kataoka Gadō IV during the memorial performance (tsuizen) honoring the seventh year of the death of his father, Kataoka Nizaemon X. He was the future Kataoka Nizaemon XII, who would be murdered in 1946 in connection with postwar food shortages.

In mid-April a bank panic swept the nation. And, on April 20, Nihon Joshi Daigaku (Japan Women’s University), the first women’s university in the nation, opened in Koishikawa, Tokyo. And, on April 29, Hirohito, the grandson of Emperor Meiji, and the future emperor of Japan, was born.

On May 3 the Yokohama-za opened. And, on May 4, two concert programs to raise funds for the mentally disabled were offered at the Kabuki-za. They were under the sponsorship of Ishii Ryōichi, the educator most responsible for advancing the cause of mentally handicapped people in Japan.
Dan-Kiku once more teamed up for the May production, which opened at 11:00 a.m. on the 16th and ran until June 9. It included the name-taking (shūmei) by Nakamura Fukusuke of Nakamura Shikan V (later Utaemon V). Play number one was Mokuami’s Yo ni Hibiku Taiko no Isaoshi (The Distinguished Service of the World Reverberating Drum). The second play, accompanied by ōzatsuma music, was the spectacular Sanmon Gosan no Kiri (The Temple Gate and the Paulownia Crest), in which a huge temple rises on a trap. It was followed by another Mokuami play, Hakogaki Tsuki Totoya no Chawan (The Precious Totoya Teacup and Its Certificate of Authenticity), while the concluding dance play was Rokkasen, with its kiyomoto, takemoto, and nagauta accompaniment. Fujima Kan’emon did the choreography. Danjūrō was still sick but played Sakai Saemon Iichi in the opening play, while Kikugorō somehow managed to be on stage throughout.
Nakamura Shikan V (formerly Fukusuke) as Ishikawa Goemon in Sanmon Gosan no Kiri. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-shi.
The middle play, Sanmon Gosan no Kiri, was performed as a memorial (tsuizen) in honor of the third anniversary of Nakamura Shikan IV’s death and the 50th of Nakamura Utaemon IV’s. The new Shikan, assuming his late father’s name, performed Ishikawa Goemon, a role considered his family’s art (ie no gei). The name-taking announcement (kōjō) was performed prior to the play, with Dan-Kiku appearing in haori jackets and hakama divided trousers.

Danjūrō’s performance of Sakai and Kikugorō’s of Mamushi no Jirōkichi in the first play were considered unusually fine, and were major highlights of these artists’ later years.

This month, the Chūō Shinbun newspaper published the results of an actors’ popularity contest, with the top position taken by Onoe Eizaburō (the future Kikugorō VI), and second place by Jitsukawa Enjirō. Among shinpa actors, Ii Yōhō came in first and Sudō Sadanori second. In the category of teenage actors the laurels went to the 16-year-old Nakamura Matagorō I and the 15-year-old Sawamura Sōnosuke I, respectively.
Onoe Eizaburō as Satomi Fuse-hime in Hakkenden Sumida Kōrō in a production at the Shintomi-za, October 1895. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-shi.
Late in May it became illegal to go barefoot in Tokyo, with either geta or shoes required. Besides being unsanitary, bare feet were considered undignified for the Japanese capital after it had signed a treaty recognizing its equality with other nations.

In the midst of the May program, a request was made for a “Sugawara Michizane Thousand-Year Festival Benefit Production,” and discussions for one were begun at once. This led to a production that opened at noon on June 16, ran for three days, and included six pieces: 1) Kawanakajima Kassen’s (Battle of Kawanakajima) “Terutora Haizen” scene; 2) Mokuami’s Mibae Genji Michinoku Nikki’s (Diary of the Seedling Genji in Michinoku) “Ise no Saburō”; 3) Genpei Nunobiki Taki’s “Kurosuke Uchi no Ba” (“Kurosuke’s Home”); 4) Fukuchi’s Ninin Bakama (Two Men, One Hakama); 5)  the tokiwazu dance Ishiharano; and 6) Saya-ate (Saber Crossing). Dan-Kiku each played two roles, with Shikan and Yaozō, their main support, being assisted by a cohort of up-and-coming young stars who performed gratis. The show received good reviews and was financially successful.
During June the Kurosawa Shōkai, a shop specializing in typewriters, opened. In July the Nihon Kōkoku Kaisha (Japan Advertising Company) was founded in Yazaemon-chō. It merged in 1907 with Denpō Tsūshinsha to form Dentsū, Japan’s largest advertising agency.

On June 2, Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi resigned for the last time, and a new cabinet was formed under Katsura Tarō. On June 6, Kyoto’s Tokiwa-za, in Shinkyōgoku, burned down. On June 21 Hōshi Tōru, head of the Tokyo Municipal Council, was assassinated by Iba Sōtarō, a master swordsman, who thought he was a corrupt politician. Kikugorō considered making the incident into a drama; in fact, the incident was incorporated into the first piece on the Kabuki-za’s summer program, a play in which a 16th-century historical personage named Imagawa Yoshimoto is slain.

From June 23 to June 25, the Mio Group of amateur gidayū performers rented the Kabuki-za.

As usual, Danjūrō took off during the summer program. The Kabuki-za company, led by Kikugorō and Shikan, opened on at 11:00 a.m. on July 13 and closed on July 29, after only 17 performances. The play about Imagawa just cited was the first on the bill, being Mokuami’s Okehazama Narumi Gundan (The Battle Tale of Okehazama and Narumi Castle). Second was Ise Ondo Koi no Netaba, and the last piece was a tokiwazu dance called Natsu Geshiki Chimata no Nigiwai (Summer Scenery and the Lively Streets), about an ice seller.

Kikugorō’s Mitsugi in Ise Ondo, one of kabuki’s most popular summer plays, was so exceptional it was said not even a master painter could capture the beauty of his stage appearance. Even the famous artist Kaburagi Kiyokata praised Kikugorō lavishly: “This actor’s domestic play artistry gives rise to feelings of which I never grow tired, no matter when I see him, but his Mitsugi, especially, should be certified as an unequalled masterpiece of the past and present. His brilliance on each point is such that I don’t believe the late painter Yoshitoshi could have captured it. I won’t even attempt it but am content merely to gaze upon it.”

Ultimately, the assassination of Hōshi Toru ended up being presented that same month at the Meiji-za, in a play called Caesar Kidan (Caesar’s Colorful Story), starring Ii Yōhō. But the authorities got involved, the Kabuki-za’s attendance was poor, and the show was closed after only 17 days. Meanwhile, future writing great Nagai Kafū, who (as described in Chapter 14) only a year before had become an apprentice playwright, had no more patience for his job of striking the hyōshigi sticks, and resigned his Kabuki-za position.  And, on July 27, Danjūrō was injured after being thrown from his carriage near the Sukiya riverside. Riding with him was Kabuki-za manager Ogasawara Shinbei, who suffered bruises to his left hand.

At this time, Russia, planning an advance into the Far East, was moving south from Manchuria into Korea, which put it into sharp conflict with Japan, advancing onto the continent. The world was filled with voices foreseeing a decisive battle between these nations and Kuroiwa Ruikō, editor of the Yorozu Chōhō newspaper, took an antiwar position, which was embraced by Uchimura Kanzō, Kotoku Shūsui, and Sakai Toshihiko who formed a circle advocating pacifism founded on Christian belief and socialism. The government-sponsored Kokumin Shinbun, edited by Tokutomi Sohō, and the Nihon Shinbun, run by Miyake Setsurei, stood against them with their pro-military attitudes.

On the other hand, in the literary world the August issue of the magazine Tairō published Takayama Chogyū’s “Biteki Seikatsu o Ronzuru” (“On the Aesthetic Life”), which had a significant social influence, with the expression “the aesthetic life” being commonly used in mass communications and journalism. And, the same month, 22-year-old Yosano Akiko’s first collection of tanka poems, Midaregami (Tangled Hair), was published, gaining attention for being a woman’s pathbreaking praise of sensuality and emphasizing love-for-love’s sake in a world where most women still followed conventionally restricted lives, including arranged marriages. Her representative verse was (as translated by Hiromi Tsuchiya Dollase):

You have yet to touch
This soft flesh,
This throbbing blood—
Are you not lonely,
Expounder of the Way?

(yawahada no atsuki chishio ni furemomide
sabishikarazuya michi o toku kimi

Meanwhile, many novels were appearing by writers such as Horitsu Ryūrō, Oguri Fūyō, Izumi Kyōka, and Tayama Katei.

Playwright Namiki Zenjirō (Namiki Gohei IV) died at 73 on August 1, and actor Mimasu Inemaru III died at 44 on August 22. On August 24, the Suehiro-za (later renamed the Hisago-za) opened in Tsunomori, Yotsuya, with second-rank actors Ichikawa Kodanji V, Onoe Matsunosuke II, and Onoe Kōzō II taking part in the opening ceremonies. It was destroyed by fire in 1908.

The price of rice skyrocketed in August and the buying and selling of rice on Japan’s stock exchanges halted.

From August 4 to August 10, a week of two shows a day at the Kabuki-za was devoted to an acrobatic troupe headed by the Flying Jordan Company, an American aerial troupe; it did well enough to extend its stay for two more days, and even Danjūrō and Kikugorō went to see it. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, the company was captured by the Japanese and then released.

On September 21, kabuki actor Ichikawa Raizō, 25, a disciple of Danjūrō’s, died. On September 29, Bandō Shūchō II died at 54 from lead poisoning, a common actors’ ailment related to the makeup then in use. He was a respected onnagata who played opposite Dan-Kiku. On September 25, Yamashita Seibei became manager of the Ichimura-za. His first production featured Sawamura Sōnosuke I, recently elevated to billing status (nadai) in the title role of Akoya (a.k.a. Dan no Ura Kabuto Gunki), which requires the playing of three instruments, and for which he received great praise.

There was no kabuki at the Kabuki-za until the October program opened on the sixth, at 11:00 a.m. Dan-Kiku headed the company, which started off with Fukuchi’s Kanbasha Gishi no Homare, followed it with Chikamatsu’s Koi Minato Hakata no Hitofushi (Song of Hakata, The Port of Love), and concluded with the dance Kotobuki Utsubozaru (The Celebratory Monkey Quiver). The first was a new play depicting the story of 17 of the 47 rōnin led by Ōishi Kuranosuke in the famous Akō vendetta.

According to Miki Takeji’s very harsh critique, Fukuchi’s research was poor, noting that “The world considers Master Fukuchi senile, and there are people who say he’s slowly getting ever clumsier but this overrates someone who’s an extreme amateur. His writing of plays is the work of someone crazy about what he’s doing but not very good at it, so treating him as a professional is rather unfortunate.” By contrast the program’s second play was an audience favorite; when the drum beating the sound of waves was heard, the house began to stir excitedly even before the pale blue curtain (asagimaku) hiding the scenery boat fell.
Onoe Kikugorō V as Sōshichi in Koi Minato Hakata no Hitofushi. From Kabuki-za Hyakunen-Shi.
Danjūrō, performing the kata of his father, Danjūrō VII, played Kezori Kuemon, while Kikugorō portrayed Sōshichi for the first time in his career, even though it was a role in which his line specialized. The two great stars were lavishly praised as a peerless duo. With Shikan giving a wonderful job as Kojorō, the production was lauded for its remarkable trio, but since every newspaper went on the attack against Fukuchi’s play, attendance was terrible. Fukuchi’s son, Fukuchi Nobuyo, later wrote: “The production was such a flop that a mere 20 people were in their seats when the curtain opened.” The 25-day run lost so much that the next production was rushed into place as quickly as possible.

On October 13, Bandō Kichiroku, a disciple of the Kanya line, died at 71.

The Benten Kozō Copyright Affair

An important event in the history of Japanese copyright law occurred in October. Eight years after the death of the great playwright Kawatake Mokuami, one of his representative works, Benten Kozō, the popular name for Aoto Zōshi Hana no Nishiki-e, was given an unauthorized performance on the 19th of its two most famous scenes, “Hamamatsuya” and “Seizoroi,” at Tokyo’s Fukugawa-za. The title used for the production was Benten Kozō Meoto no Shiranami. Two years earlier, in 1899, Japan’s copyright law was established as Law Number 39.
Yoshimura Itome, daughter of Kawatake Mokuami.
Mokuami’s daughter, Yoshimura Itome, who held the rights to his work, sued the Fukugawa-za’s manager for copyright infringement. But he offered as rebuttal a document showing that some kōdan storyteller had used the same material in a story performed well over a hundred years before, arguing that Mokuami’s work wasn’t original. Also, he said the Fukugawa-za script predated the first performance of Mokuami’s play in 1862, and insisted that it had been performed by Onoe Kikujirō during the Kaei period (1848-54).

This position was opposed by the scholar, playwright, and translator Tsubouchi Shōyō, who served as an expert witness. He argued in a written document that Mokuami’s play was the original version. The first court decision ruled for the plaintiff but the defendant appealed to a higher court, so the case, which took three years before being resolved in 1904, eventually went from the court serving the Tokyo region all the way to the Supreme Court. Kawatake Toshio, Mokuami’s grandson, later wrote of the case’s significance in Sakusha no Ie: “This incident occurred very soon after the copyright law was established and served as a test case for the law’s authority. Further, to the family of the late Mokuami, it was a major event in their rise and fall, ebb and flow.”

(Based on an account in Kabuki no 20 Seki: 100 Nen no Kiroku.)

For three days, from November 1 to 3, the Kabuki-za was again the venue for the Mio Group of amateur gidayū performers.

Opening day for the next kabuki program began at 11:00 a.m. on November 12, with Dan-Kiku again joining forces, appearing together in the popular history play Meiboku Sendai Hagi. The second play was Fukuchi’s Saga no Aki (Autumn in Saga), performed with takemoto and nagauta accompaniment. It was followed by Mokuami’s 1856 Shōchikubai Yushima no Kakegaku (The Yushima Painting of Pine, Bamboo, and Plum), whose plot retold the famous story of Greengrocer (Yaoya) Oshichi, with Shikan as Oshichi. Danjūrō played Lady Yashio and Nikki Danjō in Meiboku Sendai Hagi, while Kikugorō played the court lady Masaoka and the judge Hosokawa Katsumoto, but Danjūrō, still recovering from his illness, had low energy, while Kikugorō, on the verge of falling ill, was somehow forlorn. Not only were Danjūrō and Kikugorō’s performances panned, so were those of Bandō Kakitsu as Otokonosuke, and Kataoka Ichizō as Watanabe Gekizaemon, leading to such poor houses the show was shut down on December 1 after 20 days.

Miki Takeji took the Kabuki-za’s production methods to task:

When you think about it, the way the Kabuki-za has been lining up its plays of late has the stink of amateurism about it. Even laymen probably aren’t going to consider entering the place; it’s no surprise the result is failure. Since those in charge do nothing but accede to the actors’ requests and are unable to consider them objectively, only those plays the actors feel comfortable with are chosen, and criteria regarding the prospective audience’s interest are nonexistent. Since it’s a business it’s only natural it will fail. (From “Kabuki-za Gappyō,” in Kabuki, No. 19.)

In November Kunikida Doppo’s “Gyūniku to Bareisho” (“Meat and Potatoes”) was published. In Matsushima, another theatre called the Yachio-za opened, on November 2. On November 15, Danjūrō’s daughter Jitsuko (stage name Ichikawa Suisen II) married Inanobu Fukusaburō, a banker’s son, which made this a very unusual event in the kabuki world. Fukusaburō was adopted into the actor’s family as Horikoshi Fukusaburō (a family name as opposed to a stage name) but later became an actor as Ichikawa Sanshō V, being named Danjūrō X after his death.
Inside a kabuki theatre at the turn of the 20th century. From kyō Meiji Engeki Shi, reprinted in Kabuki-za Hyakunen-shi.

On December 6 Kikugorō suffered a stroke that left him partly paralyzed. It happened during a dinner at Hashimoto, a restaurant in Yanagishima, given by the Yūshoku Kai (Living in Idleness Society). This was a group of theatre connoisseurs that met twice a year, in the spring and fall, to eat food having some relationship to the theatre amid surroundings decorated with theatrical references.

On the 10th, liberal politician Tanaka Shōzō resigned from the Diet and appealed to the emperor regarding the pollution tied to the Ashio Copper  Mine.

The year’s final program at the Kabuki-za was not kabuki but bunraku, featuring the company of the great chanter Takemoto Ōsumidayū III. It ran for 14 days from December 4 to December 17, with a different program every day, the offerings totaling around three dozen plays, several given every day.

The Nobel Prize was established in 1901. The year was also notable for it being the first in which foreign automobiles were imported into Japan. The year was also noteworthy for the invention of radio by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, who broadcast radio waves from England to Newfoundland

For principal international events of 1901 click here and here. Major new plays written or produced in 1901 include Shaw’s Caesar and Cleopatra, Chekhov’s Three Sisters, Strindberg’s The Dance of Death and A Dream Play, and D’Annunzio’s Francesca di Rimini. See here for new theatres that opened in 1901 and still exist. Important novels of the year included Rudyard Kipling’s Kim, Frank Norris’s The Octopus and The Pit, and Thomas Mann’s Buddenbrooks. Music was represented by Antonin Dvoraks’ opera Rusalka, and Sergey Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto no. 2 in C Minor, among many other works in all aspects of music. For the year’s important art works click here.